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Literature Review on Corporate Social Responsibility CSR in Turkey

Literature Review

There are many issues regarding to studies of CSR. Firstly, most studies are conducted in some modern and Western countries (Arli and Lasmono, 2010). As such, the findings of those studies might not directly correspond with Malaysia which is a country with emerging economy. In addition there are several different opinions regarding to the definition of CSR though there is one concept that is extensively used by researchers which was established by A.B. Carroll. A.B Carroll’s concept defines CSR as a four social responsibilities of a company they are (Rahim et al.,2011;Nazari et al.,2012):

  • Economic responsibility
  • Legal responsibility
  • Ethical responsibility
  • Philanthropic responsibility

In many western countries, each responsibility is differently ranked with economic responsibility being the top priority of firm followed by legal, ethical and finally philanthropic. In the case of a country with emerging economy it is differently ranked as indicated by the researches of (Rahim et al., 2011). In their research of perception of consumer on CSR, it is indicated that countries with emerging economies have a different ranking of responsibility than other countries. It was indicated that in Indonesia, consumers recognize activities of CSR by the subsequent ranking, economic, philanthropic, legal and finally ethical (Arli and Lasmono, 2010). The theoretical framework for this study would be in accordance to the framework of A.B. Carroll’s whereby CSR is distributed into four responsibilities, ethical responsibility, economic responsibility, philanthropic responsibility and legal responsibility.

The research questions for this study are:

  1. Are practices of CSR in Turk aligned with perception of CSR of current consumers?
  2. What are companies’ objectives to be achieved by adoption of CSR in Turkey?

Corporate Social Responsibility and Consumer Perception

The concept of corporate social responsibility was raised in Western world during 1950s, but it is still considered new for developing countries of world. Different CSR principles, standards indices and frameworks have developed considerably because of the extension of these theories in business and academic world by investigators. The practice and behavior of the concepts are same in both developed and developing worlds (Nizari et al, 2012). But notable differences are prevailing in both worlds as for as execution of CSR is concerned. Researchers have specified management, geographical and cultural views and differences of business system and purposed that developed countries CSR cannot be executed in developing countries.  Asian countries such as Malaysia, India, Thailand, China and Indonesia are countries with emerging economies that are covered in corporate social responsibility. However, Asian countries face same issues that are related to development that is sustainable; management of environment and social responsibility but priorities of all the countries are different, norms and values and are at different development stage of economy. Therefore, it is compulsory to consider over priorities,   concerns and norms of all countries (Tilakasiri, 2012).

The CSR concept extends the traditional focus of organizations to accomplish bottom-line results to triple bottom-line results to gather with concept of sustainability that pays attention to economic, environmental and social performance. Burse Malaysia CSR framework (2006) defines CSR as “open and transparent business activities that are based on ethical standards, respect for environment, society, employees, shareholders and other stakeholders”. This framework was formulated in order to create value for society and community (Said et al., 2011). Bursa Malaysia framework outlines the guidelines to assist Public Listed Firms to manage CSR activities, in Malaysia. Companies should not use Bursa Framework to pretend their positive image, rather important and essential practices, which will espouse social responsibility, solve ethical issues and to create environmental awareness among customers and general public. This framework encourages Public Listed Firms of Malaysia to adopt CSR practices by highlighting its role in success of the business. Therefore, firms should adopt CSR practices in order to assist the society in its social and economic development. 

The concept of corporate social responsibility is extensively discussed, in today’s business environment. Generally, CSR refers to the obligations and responsibilities of companies, which arise from negative impacts of its operations on various stakeholders. It is the prime obligation of organizations to adopt such a way that preserves economic, social environmental and stakeholders’ interests. In other words, CSR signifies how a firm manages its operations to create value for the community. Researchers are interested to examine the relationship between CSR and organizational performance. Corporate social responsibility encompasses four dimensions of organizational operations e.g. marketplace, workplace, community and environment. Few other scholars have identified some other important aspects of corporate social responsibility; e.g. Stakeholder dimension, economic dimension, voluntariness dimension and social dimension.

Environment: corporate social responsibility covers myriad types of issues, in term of environment. Energy is scarce commodity and we have to identify ways for efficient utilization of these resources. Climatic effects and emission of carbon dioxide is another terrifying phenomenon arising from operations of companies.  Bio fuel usage is on upward spiral in Malaysia.  Flora & fauna and deforestation are also important topics of environmental protection.

Community:  All companies are operating within the sphere of community. Employees’ involvement in issues of community will bring improvements, both in community and company. Firm can establish new schools in order to provide education to local population. Organizations are discovering new ways and approaches to create and deliver value to disadvantaged persons of the communities. An organization and community interact in numerous ways.

Marketplace: it is defined as the place where major stakeholders, suppliers and customers interact with each other. Firms can collaborate in numerous ways; firms can support ethical practices and standards for procurement and manufacturing of sustainable products. 

Workplace: employees are important consideration of corporate social responsibility of any organization. Firms hire their staff from local communities; therefore firms should adopt socially acceptable practices for managing the staff, in term of human rights and gender issues. Health and safety of employees and clean and appropriately designed workplace is major issues of CSR.

There are numerous initiatives taken by the government of Turki to promote the CSR practices. These efforts can be observed from corporate social responsibility practices of firms associated with 9th Malaysia Plan and Budget. Malaysian government has announced that corporate social responsibility holds key position in its vision 2020 (Hamid and Atan, 2011). 

Figure below shows the Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility presented by Carroll (1991).

Figure 1: The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility (Carroll, 1991)

Economic CSR: Economic CSR is gauged from profitability of the firm, profit maximization, competitiveness and shareholders’ wealth maximization. In Malaysia, two additional dimensions are included into economic CSR of the firms, which is jobs and product demand.  Affordability and appropriateness of prices is also compared against product quality to assess a firm’s economic CSR (Majid and Hussein, 2012). Company has to provide the required products and services to community on affordable prices. Furthermore, companies are responsible for generating profit through selling products on affordable and appropriate prices. Organizations have to pay remuneration to staff, dividends to shareholders and tax to government. Hence, economic corporate social responsibility is to preserve financial interests of various stakeholders (John, 2012). 

Legal CSR: It is expected from organisations that they will do business within the legal boundaries of local market and accomplish their goals by fulfilling economic responsibilities (Yam, 2009). CSR encompasses the obligations, of a company, that arise from impacts of organisational operations on customers, employees, shareholders, environment and local community. Corporate social responsibility is continuous obligation of a firm to operate ethically, creating and adding value to the life of staff, their family and local community (Hossain and Siwar, 2009).    

Ethical CSR: Ethical CSR expresses the strategy of a firm to do business according to ethical and moral standards and its activities are friendly and beneficial for the society. The concept of CSR is recently surfaced; skills and knowledge can be added to it from other disciplines, such as environment management, ethics, human resource development and social development (Ismail, 2009). ACCA and Business Ethics Malaysia are actively involved to promote CSR practices and awareness creation among public. The vision of Malaysian government, for the promotion of CSR, can be observed from its efforts to integrate CSR principles in transformation plan of government linked companies (Hamid and Atan, 2011).

Philanthropic CSR: It is heights level of CSR. It is measured in duration of philanthropic and charitable expectation of the communities, support to performance for fine arts and to degree which managers and employees of the organization involve in charitable activities by the community or assistance provided by the organization to plans which will grow the value of life (Mustafa et al., 2013). Charitable Corporate Social Responsibility refers to action of the organization in reply of the expectation of the community. It is estimated by business philanthropy to grow image of organization, particularly the organization with high public visibility. And it will help in improve level of loyalty of employees and will enhance relationship with consumers. Philanthropic practices involved contribution of executive time and financial assets, as contribution to community, arts and education. Two dissimilar approaches for philanthropy; according to strategic philanthropy there may be no financial returns of philanthropy or charity, but it will give long term competitiveness and gains, while it will improve the employee loyalty, reputation of organization and legitimacy (Rahim et al.,2011). This has been observed in ERMM report in 2002, which environmental and social detail has got considerable appreciation in Malaysian society.  The content of ERMM report Human Resources issues are main point of argument in Malaysia, while environmental problems are not directed properly. Most of companies try to enhance their reputation by emphasizing their deeds of philanthropy to the community (Yam, 2012). Here is detailed framework of CSR presented by sharma and kiran (2013) from literature review:

Figure 2: CSR model extracted by shamra and kiran(2013)

The study of sharman and kiran (2013) measured the origin of parameters of policy framework and found that, instead single form of CSR practices’ evidence, the companies have to expand, for instance formerly the shift was from practices of philanthropic to Carroll’s social responsibility. Similarly, these practices of CSR have to change with the changing needs of today’s economy. The study of sharman and kiran depicts that both explicit and implicit corporate social responsibility factors should be measured for a holistic approach as depicted in figure 2 combination of responsibilities of Carroll, including health, environment and education will support in the development and implementation of CSR practices. 

However, after conducting the detailed research by Sharma and Kiran(2013) they reached on following detailed CSR framework:

Figure 3: An extended CSR Framework (Sharma and Kiran, 2013)

The model depicted in figure 2, Sharman and Kiran developed from literature review however after conducting the extensive literature review it is shown that help from various bodies will support in the development of better practices of CSR in the organisations. However, after conducting the detailed research in 2013, sharman and kiran summaries their findings (figure 3) on the relationship between implicit and explicit CSR, showing the requirements and importance of various factors as joint within the CSR framework.

The study of sharma and kiran (2013) suggested a difference between theoretical CSR implementation approaches by suggesting a social responsibility practices framework. Twenty first century’s perspective flow chart (figure 3) supports a very much in comprehending the CSR strategies’ changing nature. This is not hard and fast view that social responsibility practices of organizations are only based on above mentioned framework factors but the combination of these factors must be considered, along the social responsibility model of Carroll.

2.3. Purpose / Objectives of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

Rising global interest in environmental reporting has encouraged investigation in corporate social responsibility. Even though research on environmental reports includes organizations of various nationalities, sectors and sizes, constant concentration is paid to huge intercontinental ventures. Taking into account the size of their international operations, their visibility and the possibility to have an effect on other organizations in their group, the way they communicate co-ordinate and perceive regarding environmental matters might have a critical effect. The rising public distress on environmental pollution and deterioration resultant from the course of consumption and production put the non-financial functioning of firms under scrutiny in particular. These days publics are increasingly interested in matters for instance sustainability and accountability transparency and social responsibility. Hence firms were compelled to work as excellent citizens and make contributions to sustainable growth whereas at the same time following financial feasibility (Hostut et al., 2014).

Certainly, CSR is an approach of the organization implemented toward stakeholders such as, customers, employees, society and occasionally future generations. Hereafter, there are several characteristics of CSR. It is underlined by CSR to deal properly with employees, suppliers and customers along with determinations to support the charities, community and advancement of sustainability of environment. CSR is a concept that is based upon the belief that business should readily provide support and ponder its stakeholders including suppliers, customers, employees and community. This might be done by providing flexible working environment, supporting education by help of charity. The responsiveness about the benefits presented by CSR to stakeholders and business is growing (Barton, 2010).

Nowadays organizations are extremely forced by nearby environment to perform like a good citizen although being profitable. Behaving socially and ethically responsible is now considered as a requirement (threshold point), rather than point that differentiates. The main aim is to inspect that what is will be communicated to others, what networks of online communication has  used and how communication is defined with several  groups of stakeholders. In present time of globalization individuals, businesses, profits and environment are completely interrelated. Large players of market, with great power and influence, have been facing different claims and their actions are also being examined. This resulted into high level of pressure in order to meet the expectations at social level and to perform in way that is socially accepted in order to sustain rightfulness of their organizations (Hansen, 2012).

In last three decades, Corporate Social Responsibility has emerged as an area of study for the field of business and financial organizations’ cooperation in social setup. Corporate Social Responsibility identifies the structure of best behaviors, which a company must exhibit to convey positive effects to the society through following the principles which eliminate profit orientation. In United Kingdom there are apprehensiveness about social duty of ethical investment and firms, since 1975. In the region of Corporate Social Responsibility, there has been significant progress.   

It is becoming more difficult for companies to operate effectively and efficiently interlacing component of Corporate Social Responsibility in their usual operation. Though, in previous century investors were concerned about financial reports and balance sheet, while, today investors are assessing how company reacts and responds to the society, in which it operates and it is becoming a rule for investment. But undertaken correctly and effectively, and company’s social responsibilities steps can enhance image of brand and will improve the capacity to attract and retain best employees. Ultimately, this will leads to the customer loyalty and customer satisfaction.  Corporate Social Responsibility can perform the important role of catalysts in delivering betterments in an organization’s performance.

A large part of human labors was changed by machineries for doing work in industry, after revolution. The unequal system of income between rich and poor needed social justice, so the demand for social responsible values was felt. Through last two decades, CSR has become important for multinational organizations it has seem a clear alliance with company’s performance. The best point that CSR brings with alone which provides surety that organization is fulfilling expectations of customer, and it is good result which a company provides in its usual operations. CSR is examined as continual commitment for offer to community, if these continual commitments are for society and for employees. In this course, a corporate can run ethically all its operations with purpose of social contribution (Raman et al., 2012).

CSR and ethical thinking is not a modern phenomenon these ethical thoughts have found even B.C and Aristotle learned social concern and thinking alive entities. Aristotle highlighted a lot on sustainability and maintaining of accessible resources. Aristotle concerned as the first expert of sustainability. CSR is a societal agreement between business and society. Business ethics assume from a company to operate and act with cautious thought out moral and principles values. The value of CSR has been increasing in new era as counter balancing company effects, possible and power wrong doings (Overton, 2009).

2.4. Corporate social responsibility: Challenges

The concept that firms are accountable not just to their shareholders (owners), however even to a broader group of shareholders, is one of the vital aspects of the CSR concept. A large amount of CSR is regarding how management must recognize and “engage” shareholders and how managers must measure, determine, and report the influence of firm activities on shareholders.

Certainly, engaging and identifying all shareholders is not possible and the practice is most frequently to engage and identify NGOs as substitutes for the actual shareholders  (Justice, 2012). 

There are few conceptual problems with the shareholder concept. One is that not all shareholders are the same. Another is that not all shareholders have a rightful claim on the performance of the firm occurring out of the interests of the public. Certainly, there are few shareholders whose subsistence do not add to the responsibilities of the firm and might also decrease them.

More and more importance is gaining by corporate social responsibility (CSR) gradually. CSR is not just attracting the corporate tycoons into its boundaries, however is even attracting social activists, reformists, educationists, from all over the globe to investigate more into it. Ethical consumerism globalization, changing market scenario all are adding heat to the CSR idea. A lot of companies are showing their dedications towards CSR either to be in competition or for improving their corporate image.

Appearance of various marketing innovations commands straight link of practices of corporate social responsibility with the corporate business strategies. The current piece of writing reviews the literature of CSR since 1975 to 2011, turning over varying improvements of CSR practices (Sharma and Kiran, 2013).

2.5. Corporate Social Responsibility in Turkey

Corporate social responsibility activities are not entirely changed in countries. Turkish companies realized that this concept can increase their brand image and show a gradual improvement in the sale as well. Therefore Turkish companies are trying to allocate a separate budget for their social improvement like as awareness on health issues and higher education sponsorship and improvement in the other social welfare of the communities (YILMAZ, 2008). These communities are not directly linked with these companies. Different industries are working in educational and health betterment, furthermore automotive distribution companies in Turkey are initiating different types of project which are supporting to the better health and improvement of education. Furthermore these companies are providing other facilities for a simple citizen who has not interaction with these companies (YILMAZ, 2008). Other industries are also increasing their corporate social responsibility budgets and they are gradually increasing their participation in the social awareness of communities (YILMAZ, 2008).

The banking industry of Turkey is not different from that in other nations. How they resolve CSR and their loan policies during the crisis of 2008 is a problem to be settled. Certainly CSR is a concept concerning various aspects. In this research the concept of ‘socially responsible’ that the Turkish banks make use of lots in their marketing activities is taken as the key pointer of CSR.

The European Commission along with United Nations Development Program (UNDP, 2008) planned a report offering a baseline study of CSR in Turkey. The research was part of the bigger local EU project for “speeding up CSR practices in the recent EU member states and candidate nations as a medium for social cohesion, competitiveness, and harmonization in the EU”. The research reports the subsistence of chaos over the CSR definition and how this chaos considers itself on the CSR practices. Then again the business community firmly thinks regarding the progress and development of society and business. The article finds that “the CSR is broadly identified as a business case and especially considered on the basis of reputation and marketing. By ventures by way of sponsorships, a lot of firms and shareholder groups are intensely trying to be engaged and to shape this practice. Then again, CSR conversations in Turkey endure from the lack of institutional leadership which would form a better perception, systems and tools “(Mehmet, 2013).

The article explains the corporate governance rules put out by Capital Markets Board and thinks such rules hopeful for CSR. It is anticipated that the principles will make possible the communication among stakeholders, shareholders and firm. They are not necessary. But firms listed in Istanbul Stock Exchange must state in their yearly reports if they are following them. If not or if partially following, then they must provide the explanations for it (Mehmet, 2013).

2.6. Importance of CSR for companies in turkey.

Turkey has been taking initiatives for growth of its economy and to join the economic elite of the world. But the process of integration has also generating some problems such hyper competition that is proving a hurdle for Turk organization to follow CSR practices because of the pressure of prices and profitability. The economic influence of Turk government has been fading up since last thirty years, however still higher as compare to other European Union countries. However, stable growth and inflation rate, during last five years, has enabled the companies to actively participate in social activities. Turkish involvement with world bodies, events, developments and campaign is another important stimulus for country’s focus on corporate social responsibility practices and such other concepts.   

The United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), which was held in Turkey, in 1996, has played a crucial role to enable Turk populace to observe the experts arguing about poverty and discrimination elimination, espousing the concept human right protection, freedom and justice and ensuring the access of population to nutrition, education and health care facilities. It also provided an opportunity to discuss the issue of sustainable development in Turkey (UNDP, 2008). Corporate social responsibility is viewed as business and judged on the basis of reputation and marketing. Numerous companies are trying to shape themselves to follow the CSR practices by sponsoring different philanthropic events. The flip side, lack of institutional leadership in Turkey is creating problems to understand and follow the concept of CSR. The growth rate was fallen to 7.5% and GDP of Turkey dropped from $199.6 billion to $145.2 billion, during the economic crises, in 2001. This crisis resulted into high unemployment rate; banking sector was badly affected by this crisis as thousands of small and medium companies were ended up in bankruptcy.  The importance of corporate governance, accountability and transparency was more prominent after this situation.

During the recent times, Turkey has changed its laws according to EU laws, which is resulted into bolstering the speed of change in NGOs and an improved environment for public participation. Resultantly, international issues, coupled with social and economic crisis, provide the opportunity for discussion on CSR, businesses have to play key role and citizen to analyze and benefit. The analysis of GlobeScan, which is a Canadian research company, supported the analysis. The global research was conducted with the name of CSR Monitor; Turkish leg of the research was carried out by Yontem Research Company. According to the findings of this report, corporate citizenship was highly appreciated in the country, but it is not expected from organizations to take part in issues such as environment protection and labor rights. This research indicates that CSR is an element of corporate reputation in the country and this perception is on upward spiral from 1999 (UNDP, 2008).

2.7. CSR and Car Manufacturing Companies in Turkey

Today, companies are considered as social institution and an open system, so they expected something beyond to profit generation. Today, it is expected from organizations to follow the standards of responsible corporate governance and corporate citizenship and operate in more transparent, honest and accountable way. So in this perspective, reporting about sustainability is a crucial tool for communication of company’s environmental, social and economic performance in the context of CSR.  CSR projects in Italy and Turkey have enabled the researchers and general public to analyze and identify the methods to cope with energy issues, pollution, waste management, use of natural resources, health issues, poverty and low literacy rate (Hoştut, Deren and Hof, 2014).

In today’s world, CSR is considered as an important business concept. CSR is relatively new concepts of Turk companies. This study will examine the current situation of CSR initiatives in Turkish companies. Koc group, Dogus Group and Sabanci Holding are considered as best companies in term of CSR practices. The CSR practices of these companies will certainly increase the awareness, among society, about the importance of corporate social responsibility. This study will contribute to bolster the awareness and implementation of CSR practices in Turk companies, regulators and investors. In start, this study will define the CSR and sustainability and later on it will examine initiatives and efforts of Turk firms to promulgate the CSR practices and guidelines (YILMAZ, 2008). 

Those organizations, which have changed their mind about environmental sustainability and integrated CSR practices into their business operations, can enjoy competitive advantage and reap the benefits of CSR (Nemli, 2004). CSR is define as a concept in which a company preserve the interests of the society and take the responsibility for the effects of its operations on employees, customers, community, shareholders and natural environment. Companies are more conscious to cope with sustainability challenges, acknowledge their social responsibilities, and fulfill their ethical promises, to minimize their negative impact upon natural environment and adopting more accountability and transparency practices for stakeholders (YILMAZ, 2008).

Today, CSR is not limited to developed countries or large multinational firms. The concept of CSR is diffused to small firms and developing countries. A robust and positive reputation can assist the organization to develop trust and long term relationships with customers. Better employment and workplace conditions have positive effect on employee motivation, which ultimately increase the productivity and organization citizenship behavior. According to Capital Magazine report, in 2005, Vestal, Arckelik, Turkcell, Garanti Bank, Coca Cola and Koc H/Sabanci are ranked on top in term of CSR practices. Some researchers say that CSR espouses the reputational capital and creates trust that is a prerequisite for long term and robust relationships. Customers become loyal to socially responsible brands. Employees are also remain loyal to company as they perceive that company is preserving their interests, providing fair remuneration and working to improve their life standard (Barney and Hansen, 1994).   

2.8. References

Arli, D.I. and Lasmono, H.K. (2010).’Consumers’ perception of corporate social responsibility in a developing country. International Journal of Consumer Studies. vol. 34, pp. 46-51.

Barney, J. and Hansen, M. (1994).’Trustworthiness as a source of competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal. vol. 15, p. 175–190.

Barton, C.E. (2010). Understanding corportate social responsibility engagement in small and medium tourism business. Sydney: University of Technology.

Carroll, A.B. (1991).’The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders. Business Horizons. vol. 34, pp. 39-48.

Hamid, F.Z.A. and Atan, R. (2011).’Corporate Social Responsibility by the Malaysian Telecommunication Firms. International Journal of Business and Social Science. vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 198-208.

Hansen, S.B. (2012). Corporate Social Responsibility – A case study of Starbucks’ CSR communication through its corporate website. Australia.

Hossain, M.T.B. and Siwar, C. (2009).A Comparative Analysis Between Islamic Concept On Corporate Social Responsibility and Malaysia Managers Opinion, Malaysia: University Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Hoştut, , Deren, and Hof, , (2014).’Corporate social responsibility practices of transnational corporations: Examples from Turkey and Italy. European Journal of Research on Education. vol. 2, no. 2.

Ismail, M. (2009).’corporate social responsibility and its role in community development: an international perspective. The Journal of International Social Research. vol. 2, no. 9.

John, A.O. (2012). Survey of corporate social responsibility practices in Nigerian manufacturing sector. Nigeria: Redeemer’s University.

Justice, D.W. (2012).’Corporate social responsibility: Challenges and opportunities for trade unionists. International Confederation of Free Trade Unions.

Majid, N.A. and Hussein, A. (2012). corporate social responsibility: perception and disclosure in response to csr award with the moderating effect. Malaysia: Universiti Utara Malaysia.

Mehmet, K. (2013).’Corporate Social Responsibility In The Turkish Banking Industry And The Current Economic Crisis. Las Vegas, Proceedings of ASBBS.

Nazari, K., Parvizi, M. and Emami, M. (2012).Corporate Social Responsibility: Approaches Perspectives. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business. vol. 3, no. 9.

Nemli, E. (2004).The status of corporate sustainability in Turkish companies. Second Global Compact Academic Conference. Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Rahim, R.A., Jalaudin, F.W. and Tajuddin, K. (2011).The importance of corporate social responsibility on consumer behavior in Malaysia. Asian Academy of Management Journal. vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 119-139.

Said, R., Hariri, H., Haron, H. and Zainuddin, Y.H. (2011). The Extent of Disclosure of Corporate Social Responsibility in Malaysia. Malyasia: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Sharma, and Kiran, (2013).’Corporate Social Responsibility: Driving Forces and Challenges. International Journal of Business Research and Development. vol. 2, no. 1, p. 18‐27.

Tilakasiri, K.K. (2012). Corporate Social Responsibility and Company Performance. Sri Lanka: Victoria University.

UNDP (2008). Corporate Social Responsibility: Baselilne Report. Ankara: UNDP.

Yam, L.H.S. (2009). Corporate Social Responsibility in Malaysia Housing Developments House-Buyers’ Perspectives. Australia: University of South Australia.

YILMAZ, A.K. (2008). The Corporate Social Responsibility Practice in the Turkish Automotive Distribution Companies.  International Journal of Business and Management. vol. 3, no. 6, June, pp. 139-148.


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